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Foreman Learning - Electronic Projects, kits and tutorials

Pico 2 Display - HDMI and Audio v2

Buy the Pico 2 Display and HDMI v2 and Audio kit here: Pico 2 Display Kit

Download the firmware and source here: Pico 2 Display firmware

Pico 2 Display boardIntroducing the Pico 2 Display board, an innovative project board designed to seamlessly convert DVI signals into HDMI signals, ensuring compatibility with modern monitors and TVs. Leveraging the backward compatibility of the HDMI standard with DVI, this board offers a straightforward and effective solution for outputting signals with optimal clarity and fidelity.

Recognizing the limitations of DVI in carrying audio, the Pico 2 Display board incorporates a secondary audio circuit complete with a mono jack, enabling users to enjoy synchronized audio alongside the high-quality video output.

Engineered for simplicity, affordability, and enjoyment, the Pico 2 Display board is an ideal platform for coding enthusiasts of all skill levels. Whether you're a seasoned developer or a beginner exploring the world of electronics, this board provides an accessible and engaging avenue for experimentation and innovation. Unlock the full potential of your projects with the Pico 2 Display board – where creativity knows no bounds.

Pico 2 Display boardExplore the collection examples available for download and experimentation at this link. From terminal demos, moon image displays, panoramic vistas, a Mandelbrot fractal, and lightning-fast animated sprites, there's a wealth of possibilities awaiting your exploration.

Getting started is a breeze – just upload the UF2 files from the provided link to witness your device spring to life with these captivating demonstrations. Once you've marveled at the visual spectacle, delve into the source code provided alongside each example. Dive deep into the intricacies of each project, learning from well-tested code meticulously crafted by the community at https://github.com/Wren6991.

Moreover, this project is compatible with codebase with the Pico Sock project, ensuring seamless integration and expanded functionality for your projects. Unleash your creativity, unlock new horizons, and embark on a journey of discovery with the Pico 2 Display board and its versatile repertoire of examples. The only limit is your imagination and your willingness to learn.

Pico 2 Display - HDMI and Audio

Buy the Pico 2 Display and HDMI and Audio kit here: Pico 2 Display Kit

Download the firmware and source here: Pico 2 Display firmware

Pico 2 Display boardIntroducing the Pico 2 Display board, an innovative project board designed to seamlessly convert DVI signals into HDMI signals, ensuring compatibility with modern monitors and TVs. Leveraging the backward compatibility of the HDMI standard with DVI, this board offers a straightforward and effective solution for outputting signals with optimal clarity and fidelity.

Recognizing the limitations of DVI in carrying audio, the Pico 2 Display board incorporates a secondary audio circuit complete with a mono jack, enabling users to enjoy synchronized audio alongside the high-quality video output.

Engineered for simplicity, affordability, and enjoyment, the Pico 2 Display board is an ideal platform for coding enthusiasts of all skill levels. Whether you're a seasoned developer or a beginner exploring the world of electronics, this board provides an accessible and engaging avenue for experimentation and innovation. Unlock the full potential of your projects with the Pico 2 Display board – where creativity knows no bounds.

Pico 2 Display boardExplore the collection examples available for download and experimentation at this link. From terminal demos, moon image displays, panoramic vistas, a Mandelbrot fractal, and lightning-fast animated sprites, there's a wealth of possibilities awaiting your exploration.

Getting started is a breeze – just upload the UF2 files from the provided link to witness your device spring to life with these captivating demonstrations. Once you've marveled at the visual spectacle, delve into the source code provided alongside each example. Dive deep into the intricacies of each project, learning from well-tested code meticulously crafted by the community at https://github.com/Wren6991.

Moreover, this project is compatible with codebase with the Pico Sock project, ensuring seamless integration and expanded functionality for your projects. Unleash your creativity, unlock new horizons, and embark on a journey of discovery with the Pico 2 Display board and its versatile repertoire of examples. The only limit is your imagination and your willingness to learn.

CD4001 RF Detector

Buy the PCB for the RF Detector

Introduction:

In this tutorial, we'll walk you through assembling an RF Detector PCB featuring the CD4001BE integrated circuit. This kit includes a pre-designed PCB, making assembly a breeze. The circuit is equipped with two 2.25V LEDs in red and green, a 330 Ohm resistor, a CD4001BE IC, and a 9V battery holder. It's specifically engineered as a simple easy to assemble learning product for anyone interested in electronics.

It only requires five components to be assembled and soldered.

Principles of the Circuit:

The circuit operates on the principle of RF signal detection through the CD4001BE IC. This versatile chip acts as a NOR gate, responding to changes in RF signal strength. When the RF signal exceeds a certain threshold, it triggers the gate's output, altering the state of the LEDs. Through proper resistor placement, we can ensure that different current flows trigger the LEDs, providing clear visual feedback regarding the presence or absence of RF signals.

The result is a simple circuit that can be waved over surfaces, indicating the presence of an RF signal strong enough to trigger the green LED.

While the red LED indicates that while there might be an RF signal it can pick up, it's not so strong that it's being emitted by something close by.

Components Required:

Components required for the RF Detector:

Links are included to the components I purchased.

Notes I used a different battery holder for my first product run because I ordered the wrong one! I used the rapid online version from which you can find here.

But the board is not designed for it, this is why you see two pins bent forward in the photo. With the correct holder ordered from the list above, it will just drop in and you solder it.

Assembly Steps:

  1. Place Components
    • LEDS Look for the LED symbol printed on the board, both are circles with a straight edge. Your LED's will have a circle at the base with a straight edge as well. Align the straight edges together. The RED LED is placed on the RED1 spot, while the green is placed at D1.
    • Resistor place the 330 Ohm resistor at R1 on the board, it doesn't matter which direction you place it. Resistors are bi-directional.
    • Chip place the CD4001BE chip at U1. On every chip there is a U shaped notch cut out, and a black dot on the other end. Align the notch with the U1 label on the board. Not that the black dot printed on the PCB (not the IC) board indicates pin 1.
    • Battery holder with the proper battery holder ordered, simply align the device to the footprint on the board and solder in place.
    • Note I used an alternative battery holder.

Additional Learning

About the CD4001BE Integrated Circuit

The CD4001BE is a quad 2-input NOR gate integrated circuit (IC) chip. It belongs to the CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) family of digital logic ICs. Each NOR gate within the CD4001BE chip has two inputs and one output. The chip operates with a wide range of power supply voltages and exhibits low power consumption, making it suitable for various applications in digital electronics.

Purpose

The primary purpose of the CD4001BE chip is to perform logical operations such as NOR gate functions. NOR gates output a high signal (logic 1) only when both of their inputs are low (logic 0). They are widely used in digital circuit design for tasks like data processing, signal manipulation, and control. The CD4001BE chip, with its multiple NOR gates packed into a single package, offers designers a convenient and space-efficient solution for implementing logical functions in their circuits.

Additional Applications

In addition to its conventional use in digital logic circuits, the CD4001BE chip can also be employed as a component in RF (Radio Frequency) detector circuits. By leveraging the properties of the NOR gate, which can act as a simple comparator, the chip can detect the presence or absence of RF signals within a certain frequency range. When configured as an RF detector circuit, the chip can serve various purposes such as signal strength measurement, frequency detection, or triggering actions based on the presence of RF signals. This versatility showcases the adaptability of the CD4001BE chip beyond its traditional role in digital logic, highlighting its utility in RF applications as well.

CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) chips are a type of integrated circuit (IC) technology widely used in modern electronics. They are prevalent in a variety of devices ranging from computers and smartphones to household appliances and automotive systems. The CMOS technology offers several advantages, including low power consumption, high noise immunity, and compatibility with both digital and analog circuitry.

At the heart of a CMOS chip lies a combination of complementary pairs of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). These transistors come in two types: N-channel (NMOS) and P-channel (PMOS). The "complementary" aspect refers to the fact that these two types of transistors work together to achieve efficient switching and logic operations.

The basic building block of CMOS logic is the CMOS inverter, which consists of one NMOS and one PMOS transistor connected in series. When the input to the CMOS inverter is low, the NMOS transistor is in the on-state (conducting), allowing current to flow from the power supply to the output. Simultaneously, the PMOS transistor is in the off-state (non-conducting), ensuring no current flows from the power supply to ground. Conversely, when the input is high, the NMOS transistor turns off, and the PMOS transistor turns on, allowing current to flow from the output to ground. This arrangement enables CMOS circuits to consume minimal power since they draw current only during switching transitions.

CMOS technology offers several advantages over other IC technologies. Firstly, it consumes very little power, making it ideal for battery-powered devices and applications where energy efficiency is critical. Secondly, CMOS chips exhibit high noise immunity, meaning they are less susceptible to external interference. Additionally, CMOS technology allows for the integration of both digital and analog circuitry on the same chip, enabling the development of highly integrated systems-on-chip (SoCs) with diverse functionalities.

In summary, CMOS chips leverage complementary pairs of MOSFETs to achieve efficient switching and logic operations while consuming minimal power. Their versatility, low power consumption, and high noise immunity make them a cornerstone of modern electronics, powering a wide range of devices and applications.

NOR gates are fundamental building blocks of digital logic circuits. They belong to the family of logic gates, which are electronic devices that perform logical operations on one or more binary inputs to produce a single binary output. NOR gates specifically implement the NOR (NOT OR) operation, which means the output is true (logic 1) only when both inputs are false (logic 0).

A NOR gate typically has two or more input terminals and a single output terminal. The logic symbol for a NOR gate resembles that of an OR gate with a bubble at its output, indicating the negation operation. This bubble signifies that the output of the NOR gate is inverted relative to the OR gate.

The truth table for a NOR gate is as follows:

Input A Input B Output
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 0

From the truth table, it's evident that the output of a NOR gate is only true when both inputs are false. If any input is true, the output is false.

NOR gates find widespread use in digital electronics for various applications, including logical operations, signal processing, and control. They are often used as basic building blocks to construct more complex logic functions, such as flip-flops, latches, and multiplexers. Additionally, NOR gates are essential components in the design of memory units, arithmetic circuits, and programmable logic arrays.

In summary, NOR gates are electronic devices that implement the NOR logical operation, producing an output signal that is true only when all input signals are false. They are crucial components in digital logic design, enabling the creation of complex circuits and systems used in modern electronics.

BC547 Contactless AC Detector

A non-contact AC wire detector based on BC547 NPN transistors operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction. Here's how it works:

Components Required:

Additional Materials:

Circuit Diagram

Step-by-Step Instructions:

  1. Gather Components: Ensure you have all the required components mentioned above. Organize them in your workspace for easy access.
  2. Preparing the PCB: If you haven't already, acquire the pre-built PCB from PCBWay. This PCB will simplify the assembly process and ensure proper connections.
  3. Assembling the PCB: Use the pre-built PCB to assemble the circuit.
  4. Transistors: Take the transistors, one side has a flat edge, ensure this lines up with the flat edge printed on the board, bend the middle pin out forward and the two back pins backwards, align with holes and push in. Bend the leads outward to ensure they don't move.
  5. Resistor: Take the resistor, and place it into R1, bend the leads out to fix position.
  6. LED: Take the LED, and place it into D1, and ensure the flat edge of the LED aligns with the Flat Edge of the symbol, bend the leads out to fix position.
  7. Piezo: Take the Pizeo, and place it into BZ1, ensure the plus symbol is closest to the edge of the board.
  8. Battery holder: Positin the battery holder to align with the holes and the symbol printed n the PCB.
  9. Double check your positioning! Check twice, solder once.
  10. Solder the parts to the board.

How it all works

Basic Principles of Operation:

  1. Electromagnetic Induction: When an alternating current (AC) flows through a wire, it generates a magnetic field around it. This magnetic field induces a small voltage in nearby conductors, even without direct contact.
  2. Transistor Amplification: The BC547 NPN transistors are used as amplifiers in the detector circuit. When a small voltage is induced in the vicinity of the wire, it triggers the transistors to amplify this signal.
  3. Biasing Resistor: A biasing resistor (220ohm in this case) is used to bias the transistors. It ensures that the transistors operate in their active region and respond to small input signals.
  4. LED and Buzzer Output: The amplified signal from the transistors activates the LED and the piezo buzzer. The LED visually indicates the presence of an active AC wire, while the buzzer provides an audible alert.
  5. Detection Range: The detection range of the detector depends on various factors such as the strength of the AC signal, the proximity to the wire, and the sensitivity of the circuit components.

Function and Operation:

  1. Power Supply: The circuit is powered by a 9V battery connected to the battery holder. This provides the necessary voltage for the transistors and other components to operate.
  2. Transistor Configuration: The BC547 NPN transistors are configured in a specific arrangement to amplify the induced voltage from the AC wire. Each transistor acts as a stage of amplification, increasing the overall sensitivity of the detector.
  3. Signal Detection: As the detector approaches an active AC wire, the changing magnetic field induces a small voltage in the vicinity. This voltage is detected by the transistors and amplified.
  4. LED and Buzzer Activation: The amplified signal triggers the LED to illuminate, providing a visual indication of the detected AC wire. Simultaneously, the amplified signal activates the piezo buzzer, emitting an audible alert to the user.
  5. Safety Precautions: The non-contact nature of the detector ensures the safety of the user, as there is no direct contact with live wires. However, it is essential to exercise caution when working with electricity and always verify the presence of live wires using appropriate tools.